Category: Παραθέσεις Νομικών Μεταφράσεων

Η απόδοση των μηχανισμών ενός Ηπειρωτικού συστήματος δικαίου με αγγλικούς όρους (όρους του Κοινοδικαίου) μπορεί να αποδειχθεί ιδιαίτερα δύσκολη, όπως άλλωστε γνωρίζουν όσοι μεταφραστές το έχουν επιχειρήσει. Ο λόγος που κάνει τη μετάφραση αυτή πολύπλοκή είναι απλός: η μετάφραση  και η απόδοση των εννοιών μιας έννομης τάξης προς μια άλλη έννομη τάξη δεν είναι μια μηχανική ή αυτόματη διαδικασία. Για παράδειγμα, όταν ο ολλανδός δικηγόρος χρειάζεται να εξηγήσει το νομικό σύστημα της χώρας του σε ένα δικηγόρο χώρας του Κοινοδικαίου, δεν θα αντικαταστήσει απλά τους ολλανδικούς με αγγλικούς όρους. Η ολλανδική έννομη τάξη δεν είναι πιστό αντίγραφο της αγγλικής έννομης τάξης και αυτό σημαίνει ότι δεν υπάρχουν πάντοτε έτοιμοι αντίστοιχοι νομικοί όροι στην αγγλική γλώσσα προκειμένου να χρησιμοποιηθούν στη μετάφραση. Για να επιτύχει σωστή αλλά και αποτελεσματική χρήση της αγγλικής νομικής ορολογίας, ο επαγγελματίας νομικός μεταφραστής χρειάζεται να γνωρίζει πολύ καλά τη δική του έννομη τάξη και ταυτόχρονα να κατανοεί τη βασική δομή και τους βασικούς μηχανισμούς του Κοινοδικαίου.

Πηγή: Helen Gubby, English legal terminology: Legal concepts in language (Boom Juridische Studieboeken)

από: Eva Angelopoulou

«It is generally accepted in the general public that the legal language spoken in court and written in legal documents is hard or even impossible to understand. Studies show that there are indeed some differences between ordinary and legal language (in particular, in vocabulary and the standards of drafting). However, legal language must appear incoherent to the general public for another reason – in addition to the words used, and their grammatical structure. Legal language must appear incoherent not just because of what is said in this language but also because of what goes in it without saying: the professional legal knowledge presumed, as a rule, in legal texts. This knowledge is presented explicitly only rarely but typical legal texts can be thoroughly understood only if it is regarded as implicit in them.»

 

Professor Le Cheng (Zhejiang University)

It would seem therefore that legal translation is, at best, an approximation. Indeed, many lawyers acknowledge that this is so and that equal meaning and exact translations between legal texts are illusions that cannot be achieved in practice. Thus, many claim that the task of the legal translator is ‘to make the foreign legal text accessible for recipients with a different (legal) background’. However, that claim only works with regard to texts that do not have force of law in the target language.

Karen McAuliffe: Translating Ambiguity,The Journal of Comparative Law, Vol 9(2)

Legal translation is concerned with comparative law and the incongruency of legal systems: elements of one legal system cannot simply be transposed into another legal system. In legal translation the comparison of legal terms precedes their translation. Legal translators must compare the meaning of terms in the source and target legal systems, which will make them aware of similarities and differences in their use across languages.

Karen McAuliffe: Translating Ambiguity,The Journal of Comparative Law, Vol 9(2)

Problems in legal translation generally arise because legal systems conceptualise reality in different ways. Legal translators do not translate words. They translate terms embedded in specific cultural models. Legal systems reflect principles and values that underlie the organisation of a society. This is why the translation of legal rules is considered not as a translation of words or ideas but as an import of foreign methods of organisation of a society.

Karen McAuliffe: Translating Ambiguity,The Journal of Comparative Law, Vol 9(2)

“Legal translation is extremely difficult because it involves not only translating terms but also the underlying legal system hidden behind them.”

Aleksandra Matulewska, Lingua Legis in Translation, Peter Lang Press, 2007

«Many non-experienced translators think that a good legal dictionary is enough to do the job. They do not realise that even the best dictionary does not contain all the terms they are going to encounter in the course of translation. And even lexicographers can make mistakes. Consulting a dictionary and finding some kind of equivalent does not mean that translators find what they are looking for.»

Aleksandra Matulewska, Lingua Legis in Translation, Peter Lang Press, 2007

«If translators themselves lack linguistic and legal knowledge even the best already existing legal dictionaries and selection of legal documents will not suffice to get good legal translations. The problem is that in order to translate a text written in a language for special purposes not only is advanced knowledge of a foreign language (not to mention a native one) essential , but also knowledge of the subject-matter discussed in the text is necessary.»

Aleksandra Matulewska, Lingua Legis in Translation, Peter Lang Press, 2007

«Even very well matched parallel texts cannot solve the problem of source-language concepts which have no equivalents in the target language … in the age of the information society and ‘information deluge’, sometimes it is very difficult to find reliable parallel texts among those which are available … parallel texts do not solve the problem of finding equivalents to concepts and institutions which do not exist in the target language.»

Aleksandra Matulewska, Lingua Legis in Translation, Peter Lang Press, 2007

«The legal function of the text gives it a very specific meaning. The fact that a legal text always functions in a definite legal reality requires a special translative treatment and approach, that is the adequate transposition of the legal realities in question.»

 

Aleksandra Matulewska, Lingua Legis in Translation, Peter Lang Press, 2007

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